Friday, 11 November 2011

K V K Raju

KVK Raju (born November 28, 1928), whose surname is Kanumuri, was a first generation technopreneur born in a humble agricultural family in Andhra Pradesh. He was the founder of the Nagarjuna Group of companies.

Early life:

After graduating from Banaras Hindu University and the Madras Institute of Technology he went on to complete his Master's in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering from Michigan State University and the University of Minnesota, USA. After a short stint in American he returned to India and worked for short periods at Caltex Oil Refinery, Orient General Industries and Associated Electrical Industries. Finally, he joined Union Carbide of India and worked with them for 15 years. While working with Union Carbide, KVK Raju's deep-rooted urge to serve society through industry impelled him to start out on his own. He started the Nagarjuna Group in 1973 with an investment of 23 million dollars. The Group has since then become a diversified conglomerate with an asset base of 2.5 billion dollars.


A recipient of various awards for his outstanding contribution to industry and society, KVK Raju, was a firm believer in the adage "practice what you preach". A self-made man KVK Raju practised simple living and high thinking. He dreamt big and worked with an unstinted focus to make his dreams come true.



This popular saying is the mother of VASUDHA FOUNDATION, a social service organization that is extending its helping hand both physically and financially to all the people of all the classes and all age groups those who are affected by the fury of the nature and due to their ill luck.


The mission of VASUDHA FOUNDATION is to stand beside and provide the deprived classes all they need in the hour of need, makes them a part of the growth of the nation and provide leadership and motivation along with financial assistance.

The mission is being carried out by its programmes :

Akshara (Vidya):

Programme designed to extend helping hand to poor students pursuing higher education like engineering, medicine, post graduate courses etc.


Programme designed to save the lives of the people affected by general diseases, heart diseases, cancer, kidney diseases, eye diseases etc.


Programme designed to address the problems faced by the senior citizens and taking care of them during their sacred phase of life (Vruddhapya ).


Programme designed to enable physically and mentally disabled people to face the challenges in life and join the growth of the nation.


Programme designed to stand forefront to extend helping hand to the people who are in crisis at the time of natural calamities and helping them to revert back to their normal life.
  • Distribution of school books to the poor students
  • Distribution of clothes to the weaker sections
  • Distribution of dresses and blankets to the old people
  • Distribution of food grains in the flood and drought effected areas
  • Distribution of medicines in the areas where epidemic outbreak is there.
  • Organizing medical camps in flood effected areas.
  • Organizing medical check up programmes periodically.

VASUDHA FOUNDATION strongly believes that sharing not only joys but also sorrows is one of the duties of the human being.

Friday, 4 November 2011

Vizianagaram Empire:

Vizianagaram Empire:

This area was ruled by different Hindu Emperors of Kalinga (Ancient Orissa) up to the mediaeval period. After the fall of centralized Gajapati empire of Orissa the region was governed by the Golkonda rulers. The ancestors of Maharajas of Vizianagaram belong to the tribal belt of Orissa.

Rulers of this princely state belong to the Pusapati family. The village Pooshpadu in Nandigama Taluq was built by Amala Raju. The village later came to be known as Pusapadu. Therefore, the Kshatriyas living there came to be known as Pusapati.

The Maharaja of Vizianagram was the title held by the rulers of the princely state of Vizianagram, now in Andhra Pradesh, India.

The prominent people who have held this title include :

Pusapati Amala Raju                          (Founder)
Pusapati Rachi Raju
Pusapati Tama Bhupaludu
Pusapati Peda Vijayarama Raju
Pasupati Ananda Raju
Pusapati Chinna Vijayarama Raju     (1760–1794)
Pusapati Narayana Babu Raju          (1794–1845)
Pusapati Vijayarama Gajapati Raju   (1845–1879)
Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju        (1879–1897)
Pusapati Vijayarama Gajapati Raju   (1897–1922)
Pusapati Alaka Narayana Gajapati Raju (1922–1937)
Pusapati Vijayarama Gajapati Raju   (1945–1995)
Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju        (1950- )

Vijayananda Gajapathi Raju, better known as Vizzy, a politician and former cricket captain of India, was the Maharajkumar (prince) of Vizianagram, being the second son of Maharaja Vijayarama Gajapati Raju IV (1897–1922).



SHORT HISTORY: The Chalukya (Solanki) were several South Indian dynasties that ruled in the Deccan. They claimed descent from Pulakesin I (reigned 543-566), who established himself at Badami (in Bijapur). The Early Chalukyas (Solankis) held power in northern Karnataka from the 6th cent. until 757, and were rivals to the Palavas. Vengi (in East Andhra Pradesh) became the center of the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty, which ruled there from 624 until the 11th cent., surviving the fall of the Early Chalukyas (Solankis) in Badami. The Late Chalukyas (Solankis) gained ascendancy in the Deccan c.973, centered at Kalyani. The history of the Kalyani Chalukya (Solanki) kingdom was largely one of war with the Cholas and defense against the incursions of the Turks and Arabs who were plundering North India. The kingdom broke up in 1189. Rulers were...

EARLY CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Deccan (South India) From 543 to 747
  • Raja PULAKESIN I 543/566, founded Vatapi (modern Badami in Bijapur district of Karnataka state) and made it his capital. His sons extended the boundaries of the Chalukya (Solanki) kingdom.
  • Raja KIRTIVARMAN I 566/597
  • Raja MANGLESH 597/608
  • Raja PULAKESIN II 608/642, was the greatest ruler of the Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty. He consolidated his authority in Maharashtra and conquered large parts of the Deccan. He clashed successfully with the Pallava empire in Tamil Nadu, and also conquered the Cheras and the Pandyas. In 609 (624?), he appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Viceroy of Vengi, who subsequently declared his independence and established the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) Empire. His greatest achievement was his victory against Raja Harshvardhan, Uttarapatheshvara (Lord of the North), in 620, around this time he received the title of Dakshinapatheshvara (Lord of the South), however, he was defeated and killed by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman in 642. His capital Vatapi was completely destroyed, he married and had issue. He died 642.
    • Raja VIKRAMADITYA I (qv)
    • Raja KUBJA VISHNUVARDHANA (see below)
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA I (642) 655/680, also as great a ruler as his father, he renewed the struggle against the Pallavas and recovered the former glory of the Chalukyas (Solankis), although the clashes with the Pallava Empire continued until Vikramaditya II won a comprehensive victory against the Pallavas in 740.
  • Raja VINAYADITYA 680/696
  • Raja VIJAYADITYA 696/733
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA II (son) 733/745, won a comprehensive victory against the Pallavas in 740.
  • Raja KIRTI VARMAN II 745/746 (757), was overthrown by a chief named Dantidurga of the Rashtrakutas.
    INTERREGNUM 757 / 848, the Deccan under Muslim rule, Chalukya (Solanki) rule continues at Vengi.
EASTERN CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Vengi 624/1075. This branch of the Chalukyas (Solankis) of Badami is referred to as the "Eastern Chalukyas (Solankis)" to the historians. Pulakesin II, the renowned ruler of Chalukyas (Solankis) conquered Vengi (near Eluru) in 624 and installed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana on the throne. They ruled at first from Pistapura, then from Vengi and later from Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry). In 1189, the Empire succumbed to the Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra and the Yadavas of Yadugiri.
  • Raja KUBJA VISHNUVARDHANA 624/641, initially installed as Viceroy by his brother, he declared himself independent and expanded his dominions which now contained Srikakulam in the north and Nellore in the south.
  • Raja JAYASIMHA I (son) 641/673
  • ........
  • Raja MANGI YUVARAJA 681/705, then followed a period of unrest characterised by family feuds and weak rulers. In the meanwhile, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed ousted Chalukyas (Solankis) of Badami. The weak rulers of Vengi had to meet the challenge of the Rashtrakutas, who overran their kingdom more than once.
  • ......
  • Raja VIJAYADITYA III 848/892, died 892.
  • Raja BHIMA I (nephew) 892/921, built a temple in honour of Siva at Draksharama.
  • Raja AMMA I [VIJAYADITYA V](son), compelled to take refuge in the fort of Pithapuram, where he founded a dynasty.
  • Raja AMMA II [VIJAYADITYA VI], fl.945
  • Raja DANARNAVA, married and had issue. He died 973.
    • Raja SAKTIVARMAN I (qv)
    • Raja VIMALADITYA (qv)
  • Raja JATA CHODA BHIMA of Pedakallu in Kurnool district, who ruled 973/1000.
  • Raja VIMALADITYA, fled from the Kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola King Rajaraja I (985/1016), Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava. In this war, Jata Choda Bhima was killed and Vengi passed into the hands of Rajaraja. This was not liked by Satyasraya, an early ruler of the Western Chalukyas (Solankis) of Kalyani. As a result of this, Vengi became the bone of contention between the Cholas and Chalukyas (Solankis) of Kalyani to the west, married Rani Kundavai, daughter of King RAJARAJA I Chola.
  • ......
  • Raja VIJAYADITYA VII -/1075, the rule of Vijayaditya VII, the last king of the eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty, witnessed an invasion of the Vengi kingdom by the Chedi King of Dahala, Yasahkarnadeva in 1073. Vijayaditya VII lost his kingdom and with his death in 1075 the eastern Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty came to an end.
WESTERN CHALUKYA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Gujarat from 973 to 1189
  • Raja TAILAPA II [Ahavamalla] 973/997, founder of the later Western (Kalyani) Chalukyas (Solankis), he consolidated his realm with the help of the early Chalukya (Solanki) family and with the help of Kadambas and recovered much of the lost territories of earlier Chalukyas (Solankis). He overthrew the Rashtrakutas and recovered most of the Chalukya (Solanki) empire, except for Gujarat. Kalyani was the capital of the empire, and the Chalukyas (Solankis) of this period are known as the Kalyani Chalukyas (Solankis).
  • Raja SATYASRAYA [Irivabedanga] (son) 997/1008, he won a victory against King Rajaraja Chola who had invaded Satyasraya's region.
  • Raja DASAVARMAN 1008
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA I 1008/1014
  • Raja AYYANA 1014/1015
  • Raja JAYASIMHA I 1015/1042, he repelled invasions from the North and the southern invasion from the Chola King Rajendra. He moved his capital from Malkhed to Kalyana (in Bidar).
  • Raja JAGADHEKAMALLA, he is stated to have defeated Bhoja the ruler of Malava confederacy and Chedi King.
  • Raja SOMESVARA I (son) 1042/1068, also known as Ahavamalla, defeated the Chola king Rajadhiraja Chola in 1052,
  • Raja SOMESVARA II (son) 1068/1076
  • Raja VIKRAMADITYA II (brother), of Kalyana 1076/1127, conquered Cholas, Keralas, Ceylon, ... as an army leader of his brother, he received submission from the ruler of konkan, and soon marched against Vira Rajendra Chola, the latter sued for peace by giving his daughter to marry Vikramaditya. When Vira Rajendra died, Vikramaditya placed his brother-in-law named Adhi-Rajendra on the throne of Cholas. After his brother-in-law was killed, Vikramaditya was defeated by the Eastern Chalukya (Solanki) king Jayasimha and was given with the governship of Bellary. Again in 1076, Vikramaditya took the help of Hoysala and ascended the throne as Vikramaditya VI.
  • Raja SOMESVARA III 1127/1138, was more interested in literary matters and allowed Vishnuvardhana Hoysala to take an opportunity to declare independence.
  • Raja JAGADHEKAMALLA II 1138/1151, Hoysalas invaded the Chalukya (Solanki) territory.
  • Raja TAILAPA III 1151/1164, he was captured by the Kakatiya invader Prola I and his commander-in-chief, Bijjala Kalachuri usurped the throne.
  • Raja BIJJALA KALACHURI 1164/1168, strengthened the position of his kingdom, which saw rapid succession after his reign.
  • Raja SOMESVARA IV 1168/1177, the Chalukyas (Solankis) were able to recover their territory under the leadership of Somesvara IV, the son of Tailapa III. His suzerainty was acknowledged by the last Kalachuri ruler Singhana. He soon gained allegiance of Kadambas of both Goa and Banavasi, and Pandyas of Uchchangi. With the attack from the Hoysalas under Vira Ballala I and the Yadavas of Devagiri, the later Western Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty came to and end in about 1189.
  • Raja SANKAMA II 1177/1180
  • Raja AHAVAMALLA 1180/1183
  • Raja SINGHANA 1183/1184, ruled peacefully in succession.
SOLANKI (Chalukya): Ruled in Gujarat 942 or 960/1244
  • Raja MULRAJA I 960/997, Solanki (Chalukya) prince of Kalyani, founded an independent dynasty, known as Chalukya of Anahilapataka or the Solanki dynasty. He is famous for building the great temple of Rudramahalya at Sidhpur.
  • Raja CHAMUNDARAJA (son) 997/1009
  • Raja VALLBARAJA (son) 1009 (for six months)
  • Raja DURLABHARAJ (brother) 1009/1024
  • Raja BHIMDEV I (nephew) 1024/1064
  • Raja KARANDEV 1064/1093
  • Raja JAISINGH 1093/1142
  • Raja KUMARPAL 1142/1172
  • Raja AJAYPAL 1172/1176
  • Raja MULRAJ II 1176/1178
  • Raja BHIMDEV II 1178/1241, married and had issue.
    • Raja MANGALDEV (qv)
    • Rao Lakshman Prashat, married and had issue.
      • Rao Veerhaval, married and had issue.
        • Rao Vyaghra Dev, married and had issue.
          • Rao Karandev
          • Rao Kandhar Dev, founder of Kasota.
          • Rao Keerti Dev, founder of Pitapur.
          • Rao Surat Dev, married and had issue.
            • Rao SHAKTIVAN, founder of the Princely State of Rewah [1499]
  • Raja TRIBHUVANPAL 1241/1244, last ruler of Gujarat of the Solanki dynasty, with authority passing to the related Vaghela rulers of Dholka.
  • Rao MANGALDEV 1244/1260 in Siddhpur Patan
  • Rao GANESH DEV 1260/1290, married and had issue.
    • Rao BHANU DEV (qv)
    • Rao BHISHAM DEV, founder of the ruling family of the Princely State of Lunawada [1295].
  • Rao BHANU DEV 1290
  • ......
  • Rao DEVRAJ SINGH 1430/1476, married and had issue.
    • Rao Jai Singh
    • Rao Ram Singh
    • Rao Amrat Dev, married the daughter of Raja Bariar Dev, and had issue.
      • Rao KESAR DEV, founder of the Mehsana Thikana family of Patan in Gujarat.
VAGHELA (SOLANKI): Ruled in Gujarat 1244/1304, this was a branch of the Solanki Kings, and initially ruled at Dholka.

  • Raja VISALA 1244/1262
  • Raja ARJUNA 1262/1275
  • Raja SARANGADEVA 1275/1297
  • Raja KARNADEVA 1297/1304, submitted to the Delhi Empire. 

Thursday, 3 November 2011

Tuluva Dynasty

Tuluva Dynasty

The Tuluva Dynasty is the third dynasty, that ruled Vijayanagar Empire. They were chiefs who feinted portions of coastal Karnataka. The Tuluva Dynasty was one of the decision-making lines of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India. The Vijayanagar empire accomplished it utmost splendor during this period with their most celebrated king was Krishna Deva Raya. Their reign comprised of five emperors from 1491 till 1570. They ruled approximately the whole of South India with Vijaynagar as their capital.

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka:

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka (1491-1503 CE) was the able commander of the Vijayanagar army under the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. Following the death of king Saluva Narasimha, the crown prince Thimma Bhupala was assassinated by an army commander. The faithful Narasa Nayaka then crowned the prince, Krishnadevaraya.

Viranarasimha Raya:

Viranarasimha Raya (1505-1509 CE) was crowned the king of Vijayanagar Empire following the death of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka. The adolescent Krishnadevaraya was the king`s half brother. The demise of their competent father Tuluva Narasa Nayaka resulted in feudatories mounting in revolt ubiquitously. Primarily, Immadi Narasa Nayaka, the eldest son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka became king and lasted the throne for two years prior to assassination. Viranarasimha Raya was coronated subsequently in 1505 and depleted years, combating revolt warlords. Yusuf Adil Khan of Bijapur tried to expand his sphere of authority to the south of the Tungabhadra.

The Vijayanagar regent was backed by Ramaraja of the Aravidu family and his son Thimma. With their aid, Adil Khan was overpowered and repressed. Adoni and Kurnool area became a part of Vijayanagar Empire. During this time, the chief of Ummattur was again in revolt and Viranarasimha Raya set out south to quell the rebellion, having placed Krishnadevaraya as the ruler in absence. Intensive efforts by Viranarasimha Raya to suppress the rebellion in Ummatur had mixed results. Portugal assisted king Raya`s forces in this conflict, providing horses and weaponry, in exchange seeking control of the port of Bhatkal.

Legend has it that, when on his deathbed, Viranarasimha Raya appealed to his minister Saluva Thimma (Thimmarasa) to blind Krishnadevaraya so that his own eight year old son could become king of Vijayanagar. Thimmarasa however fetched a pair of she-goat eyes to the king and informed him that he had Krishnadevaraya killed.


Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 CE) was the most prominent king of Vijayanagara Empire. He presided over the empire at its summit. He is considered the hero of the people of Kannada and Telugu descent in South India and measured one of the eminent kings of India. Emperor Krishnadevaraya also received the designations of Andhra Bhoja and Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana. He was aided in the administration by the competent Prime Minist er Timmarusu. Timmarusu, was liable for the coronation of Krishnadevaraya. Krishnadevaraya revered Timmarusu as a father figure, but was the son of Nagala Devi and Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who soon after took charge of the sovereignty of the empire to prevent it from disintegration. The king`s coronation took place on the birthday of Lord Krishna while his original inscription dates back to July 26th. 1509 C.E. He built a fine-looking village near Vijayanagara called Nagalapura in reminiscence of his mother.

Military Campaigns and Foreign Relations:

The reign of Krishnadevaraya was a magnificent episode in Vijayanagar history when its armies were successful everywhere. On instances, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory. The first decade of his rule was one of long sieges, bloody conquests and victories. His main enemies were the Gajapatis of Orissa who had been at constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, The Bahamani Sultans, though divided into five small kingdoms were still a constant threat, the Portuguese were a rising maritime power and hence controlled much of the sea trade. The feudatory chiefs of Ummatur, Reddys of Kondavidu and Velamas of Bhuvanagiri had time and again rebelled against Vijayanagar authority.

Success in Deccan:

The annual affair of raide and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Rays`s rule. In 1509. Krishnadevarayas armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and sultan Mahmud was severely injured and defeated. Yusuf Adil Khan was killed and Kovilkonda was annexed. Taking advantge of the victory and disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar, Gulbarga and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de-facto ruler. All this happened by 1510.

War with Feudatories:

The Emperor restrained local rulers, Reddys of Kondavidu and Velamas of Bhuvanagiri, and detained lands up to the Krishna River. Gangaraja, the Ummatue chief brawled Krishnadevaraya on the banks of the Kaveri and was overpowered. The chief later drowned in the Kaveri in 1512. The region was made a part of the Srirangapatna province. In 1516-1517, he pushed beyond the Godavari river.

War with Kalinga:

Krishnadevaraya conquered the Gajapatis of Orissa who were in occupation of northern Andhra in five campaigns. The success at Ummatur asserted the required momentum to carry his campaign into to Telangana region, which was in control of Gajapati Prathaparudra. In 1513 the Vijayanagar army laid siege to Udayagiri fort, which lasted for a year before the Gajapati army was routed. Krishnadevaraya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Channa Devi. His kulaguru Vyasatirtha wrote many songs in praise of the King after this victory.

The Gajapati army was then met at Kondavidu where after a siege of a few months, Krishnadevaraya along with Saluva Timmarasa inflicted another defeat on Prathaparudra. Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. The Vijayanagar army then accosted the Gajapati army at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. This was the final defeat for the Gajapathi king who offered his daughter Jaganmohini in marriage to Krishnadevaraya. She became his third queen. He established cordial relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510. The Emperor obtained guns and Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants. He also utilized Portuguese expertise in improving water supply to Vijayanagara City.

Ultimate Conflict:

The complicated alliances of the empire and the five Deccan sultanates meant that he was incessantly at war; in one of these campaigns, he crushed Golconda and detained its commander Madurul-Mulk, trampled Bijapur and its sultan Ismail Adil Shah and restored Bahmani sultanate to Muhammad Shah. The underscore of his invasions occurred on May 19, 1520 where he secured the fortress of Raichur from Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur after a difficult siege during which 16,000 Vijaynagar soldiers were killed. The grateful emperor suitably rewarded the exploits of the chief military commander, Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayudu, during the battle of Raichur.

During the campaign against Raichur, it is said that 703,000-foot soldiers, 32,600 cavalry and 551 elephants were used (See The battle of Raichur). Finally, in his last battle, he razed to the ground the fortress of Gulburga, the early capital of the Bahmani sultanate. His empire extended over the whole of South India. In 1524 he made his son Tirumalai Raya the Yuvaraja though the crown price did not survive for long. He was poisoned to death. Suspecting the involvement of Saluva Timmarasa, Krishnadevaraya had his trusted commander and advicer blinded.

Internal Affairs:

Paes abridges the king`s approach towards matters of law and order by the sentence, "The king maintains the law by killing." Offences against belongings (designed to maintain stability) and for murder arrayed from cutting of a foot and hand for theft and beheading for murder (except for those occurring as a result of duel). Paes could not approximate the size of Vijaynagar as his view was obscured by the hills but estimated the city to be at least as large as Rome. Additionally, he measured Vijaynagar to be "the best provided city in the world" with a population of not less than a half a million. The empire was divided into a number of provinces often under members of the royal family and into further subdivisions. The official languages of the court were Telugu and Kannada.


Vitthala temple with musical pillars, Hoysala style multigonal base Hampi. The reign of Krishnadevaraya was an age of productive literature in many languages, while it was also known as a golden age of Telugu literature. Several Telugu, Sanskrit, Kannada and Tamil poets enjoyed the patronage of the emperor. Emperor Krishnadevaraya was assured in many languages. He patronized Kannada poets Mallanarya who wrote Veerasaivamrita, Bhavachintaratna and Satyendra Cholakathe, Chatu Vittalanatha who wrote Bhagavatha, Timmanna Kavi who wrote a eulogy of his king in Krishnaraya Bharata.

Vyasatirtha, the great saint from Mysore belonging to the Madhwa order of Udupi was his Rajguru who wrote countless songs in praise of his devoted king. Krishnadevarayana Dinachari in Kannada is a freshly discovered work. The record highlights the modern society during Krishnadevaraya`s term in his personal diary. However it is not yet clear if the king himself wrote the record. Krishnadevaraya patronised Tamil poet Haridasa. In Sanskrit, Vyasatirtha wrote Bhedojjivana, Tatparyachandrika, Nyayamrita (a work directed against Advaita philosophy) and Tarkatandava. Krishnadevaraya himself a proficient scholar wrote Madalasa Charita, Satyavadu Parinaya and Rasamanjari and Jambavati Kalyana.


Krishnadevaraya inscribed Amuktamalyada in Telugu. In Amuktamalyada, Krishnaraya magnificently elucidates the pangs of division endured by Andal (one of the twelve bhakti era alwars) for her lover Lord Vishnu. He depicts Andal`s physical beauty in thirty verses, using metaphors of the spring and the monsoon. One of the main characters is Periyalwar, the father of Andal. Lord Vishnu commands Periyalwar to educate a king of the Pandya dynasty the path of knowledge to moksha. Amuktamalyada is also known by the name Vishnuchitteeyam, a reference to Vishnuchittudu, the Telugu name of Periyalwar. Several other short stories are included in Amuktamalyada in the course of the main story of Godadevi, the Telugu name of Andal, which is used throughout. Krishnarayalu was also well versed in Sanskrit, Tamil and Kannada. Jambavati Kalyanamu is his Sanskrit work. He also mentions of himself belonging to the Kuruba/Golla clan in Amuktamalyada.

Religion and Culture:

Krishna Deva Raya esteemed all cults of Hinduism, although he individually inclined in favor of Sri Vaishnavismas and lavished on the Tirupati temple numerous objects of priceless value, ranging from diamond-studded crowns to golden swords. Additionally, he is known to have constructed the statutes of himself and his two wives within the temple complex. Krishna Deva Raya is respected, worshipped and idolized by Kurubas & Yadavas as one of the eminent personalities of their community. Krishnadevaraya, was formally, initiated into the Sri Vaishnava Sampradaya, by Panchamatha Bhanjanam Tathacharya, the Rajaguru, of those times. Article by U Vaidyanathan He also, equally, patronised Vyasatirtha, and other vedanta scholars of that time. He patronized poets and scholars in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit.

Achyuta Raya:

Achyuta Raya (1529-1542 CE) was a ruler of a Vijayanagara Empire of South India. He was the younger brother of Krishna Deva Raya, whom he succeeded in 1529. He patronised Kannada poet Chatu Vittalanatha and the great singer Purandaradasa(Father of Carnatic music) and the Sanskrit scholar Rajanatha Dindima II. Upon his death, the succession was disputed. His nephew, Sadashiva, finally became king while yet a child, under the regency of Aliya Rama Raya, a son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya.Achutha devaraya crowned Garikepati Viswanatha Naidu of Balija caste as the king of Madurai and thus Viswanatha Naidu became the founder of Madura dynasty.

Achyuthadevaraya not only crowned Alluri Sevappa Naidu of Balija caste as the king of Thanjavur but also gave his sister-in-law Murthimamba (His wife Thirumalamba`s own sister) in marriage to Sevappa naidu who became the founder of Thanjavur dynasty. The time when Achyuta Raya became the king was by no means a favorable one. The peace and prosperity of the halcyon days under Krishnadevaraya were coming to an end. Feudatories and enemies were waiting for an opportunity to bring down the empire. In addition, Achyuta Raya had to contend with the powerful Aliya Rama Raya, who was competing for the throne.

While the works of Nuniz speak very lowly of Achyuta Raya as being a king given to vices and cruelty, there is enough evidence to prove that the king was indeed noteworthy in his own right and fought hard to keep the prosperity of the kingdom alive. He had been handpicked by Krishnadevaraya himself as an able successor. Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur invaded and captured the Raichur doab. However the Gajapati`s of Orissa and Quli Qutub Shah of Golconda were defeated and pushed back. Now Achyuta Raya along with his general Salakaraju Tirumala went on a southern campaign to bring the chiefs of Travancore and Ummatur under control. This they did successfully. Then they invaded the doab north of Tungabhadra and recaptured the forts of Raichur and Mudgal. The two Sanskrit works Achyutabhyudayam and Varadambikaparinayam describe the kings life and rule in detail.

Throughout his rule, Achyuta Raya had to contend with the manipulations of Rama Raya who in his powerful capacity had replaced many of the faithfull servants of the Kingdom in high ranking positions with men of his own favour. On more than one occasion the Bahamani Sultans were brought in to play the role of mediator between the king and Ailya Rama Raya in the game of power sharing. This would further weaken the kingdom. In 1542 Aliya Rama Raya imprisoned Achyuta Raya in a coup and made Sadasiva Raya the new regent. Aliya Rama Raya became the de-facto king and let very little governance in the hands of Sadasiva Raya.

The Tiruvengalanatha Temple was built at Vijayanagara during his reign. It has become popularly known by his name as Achyutaraya Temple, rather than by the name of the deity Lord Venkateshwara to whom the temple was dedicated.

Sadasiva Raya:

Sadasiva Raya was a king of Vijayanagara Empire. He came to power following the death of his uncle Achyuta Deva Raya in 1543. His coronation was made possible due to support of Aliya Rama Raya, son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya. Throughout his rule, the real power lay in the hands of the de-facto ruler Aliya Rama Raya.

Varman dynasty

Varman dynasty

The Varman dynasty ruled Kamarupa (Assam) from 350 to 650. This dynasty is sometimes called the Naraka or Bhauma dynasty since it traces its lineage to the mythical Narakasura. Pushyavarman is the first historical ruler of Assam. This dynasty was followed by the dynasty of Salasthambha. Perhaps the most famous was monarch of this dynasty was the last, Bhaskara Varman who claimed be a descendant from god Vishnu, was a staunch Buddhist and accompanied King Harshavardhana to religious processions from Pataliputra to Kannauj.

  1. 350-374        Pushya Varman
  2. 374-398        Samudra Varman
  3. 398-422        Bala Varman
  4. 422-446        Kalyana Varman
  5. 446-470        Ganapati Varman alias Ganendra Varman
  6. 470-494        Mahendra Varman alias Surendra Varman
  7. 494-518        Narayana Varman
  8. 518-542        Bhuti Varman alias Mahabhuti Varman
  9. 542-566        Chandramukha Varman
  10. 566-590        Sthita Varman
  11. 590-595        Susthita Varman
  12. 595-600        Supratisthita Varman
  13. 600-650        Bhaskara Varman




Rajapalayam is an important municipal city in Virudunagar district of Tamil Nadu. It is situated 85 kilometer south west of Madurai. Its main attraction is Ayyanar falls and the town of Srivilliputur. It is also known for its Rajapalayam breed of dogs.


Rajapalayam gets its name from the name of the community that is dominant here Rajas or Rajus a Telugu speaking community that had migrated from Andhra Pradesh centuries ago. The word `palayam` is frequently used in many Tamil cities as a suffix and it translates roughly as a `fort`. The origin of Rajapalayam dates back to 1700 AD. The exact timing of the settling of Raju people in this specific area is not established, but believed to have happened as a consequence of collapse of Vijayanagara empire and the arrival of Rajus as administrators or commanders to this region.

Initially, Rajapalyam developed as an agricultural community and most people had farming as their source of livelihood. In the mid 1900s, the small town of Rajapalayam gradually evolved into a thriving business community. Due to the enterprising and hard working nature of its people, commerce developed quickly in the region and several industries, particularly cotton based flourished. Hence it got the name “Cotton city”. Today Rajapalayam is one of the most industrialized cities in southern Tamil Nadu and people of all communities and religions live and contribute for its growth.


Rajapalayam city acquired the total area of 11 sq kms. It is located 9° 12` to 9° 47` N latitude and 77° 20` to 78° 26` E longitude. The climate of the city is Semi- arid -tropical monsoon type. It has a high mean temperature and a low degree of humidity. In summer the maximum temperature is 37.1°C and minimum is 25.4°C. In winter the maximum temperature is 29.2°C and minimum is 20.4°C. The maximum rainfall of the city is 792 mm.


The economy of the city is based on the manufacture of textiles, and there are mills for spinning and weaving cotton, as well as a large cotton market. The major industries of Rajapalayam are-

Rajapalayam Mills Ltd- Manufacturer of cotton yarn
Rajapalaiyam Spintext- Manufacturer of cotton yarn
Rajapalaiyam Textiles- Manufacturer of cotton yarn
Sri Ramco Spinners- Manufacturer of cotton yarn
Sri Vishnu Shankar Mill Ltd- Manufacturer of cotton yarn
Ramaraju Surgical Cotton Mills- Manufacturer of surgical bandages & cloth
Sandhya Spinning Mills Ltd- Spinning mill, part of Ramco Group
Geetha Krishna Spinning Mill Pvt. Ltd.- A quality cotton yarn manufacturer
Sree Karpagambal Mills Ltd.- Large yarn spinning and fabric weaving mill since 1956
Sethuram Spinners Pvt. Ltd.- Leading spinning mill in Rajapalayam. Manufacturers and exporters of open end yarn, 100% cotton open end (OE) yarn used for making of denim, terry towel, bottom weights, industrial fabrics and furnishings etc
Polyspin Export ltd- manufacturer and exporter of p.p.bags and jumbo bags
Sterling Techno(P) Ltd- Manufacturer of cotton yarn
Madras Chip Boards- Manufacturer of flush doors
Limenaph Chemicals (P) Ltd is Manufacturers of cement paints (colours), adhesives, lime powder, paints, distemper and alloied products.
Ramaraju Surgicals Surgical dressings, cotton wool, grey, gauze, absorbent gauze and bandages from the Ramaraju Surgical Cotton Mills have been manufactured to international quality standards for almost 60 years now.
Raju Spinning Mills (P) Ltd-Manufacturer of cotton yarn
Nachiar Spinning Mills. - The largest and number one exporters of cotton yarns and cloths from Rajapalayam to all the Europe and African countries
Shri Padmavathi Cotton Mills- Manufacturer of cotton Yarn.


By Air: The nearest airport to Rajapalayam is Madurai.
By Rail: Rajapalayam has a railway station that connects it with Tirunelveli, Sivakasi, Srivilliputur and other towns and cities of the state.
By Road: Rajapalayam is well connected by road with the neighbouring towns and cities of the state.


As per 2001 Census of India, Rajapalayam had a population of 121,982. Males constitute 50% and females 50% of the population . 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. Rajapalayam has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 66%.


The major languages used in Rajapalayam are Tamil, Telugu and English. Most important festival of Rajapalayam is the sacred wedding ceremony of Goddess Meenakshi and Lord Sundareswarar. This festival is held during March -April. During this festival the city displays a colourful and joyous mood. Images of the divine couple are taken around the city in a tastefully decorated chariot, amidst the presence of a huge gathering of devotees. The notes of Nadaswaram and drums further aggravate the festive ambience. The annual float festival marks the images of Meenakshi and her consort floating on the Mariamman tank on an illuminated raft bedecked with flowers. As such there are festivals throughout the year in Rajapalayam. All most 11 big annual festivals are celebrated, which are spread through the year with exception of the monsoon months. There are several libraries, theaters and town halls for entertainment in the city.

The Rajapalayam breed dog was used for hunting long back in Rajapalayam. It is a hound dog, white in colour with good height. Its nose is generally light in colour-pink.

Visiting Places:

Ayyanar Koil (Ayyanar Falls): Ayyanar Falls is located on the slope of Western Ghats, It has lot of waterfalls and a temple. It provides good opportunity for woodland mountain climbing. Dam is situated on the way to Ayyanar Falls which is providing water for the whole city.

Sanjeevi Hills: Sanjeevi Hills is situated in Rajapalayam on the way to Chatrapatti. The calm and serene ambience makes it a favorite spot for tourists. Tradition recounts that in order to save the unconscious Lakshmana, Hanuman, the monkey god carried the entire Sanjeevi Hill with the herbal plants to Sri Lanka and threw it away afterwards. It is said that the thrown down hill is the Sanjeevi Hills.

Srivilliputtur: Sri Andal`s Temple is located in Srivilliputtur . Andal was a great devotee of Lord Krishna. The tower at the entrance gate (Main Gopuram) is the second highest in Tamil Nadu. And the tower is the symbol of Tamilnadu Government.

Shenbagathope Grizzled Squirrel Sanctuary: The forests are found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. Only 6.3% of the total geographical area is under forests. Many rare and endemic varieties of flora and fauna are found along the mountain slopes. A wildlife sanctuary, spread over 480 square kilometres was established in 1989 at Shenbagathopu in Srivilliputtur taluk..

This sanctuary is contiguous with the Periyar tiger reserve on the south-western side and the Megamalai reserve forest on the north-western side. The altitude varies from 100 to 2010 m above sea level. The sanctuary is home to the endangered, arboreal grizzled giant squirrel `Ratufa macrora`. This greyish brown squirrel weighs 1 to 1.8 kg. and is the size of a small cat. It measures about 735 mm. from nose to tail with the tail being 360 to 400 mm. long. They construct drays at forked branches where the crowns of neighbouring trees meet. This enables the squirrel to move away from the site by jumping from tree to tree when threatened. The home range of an individual is between 1,970 and 6,110 square metres.


Rajapalayam has many higher secondary and high schools, which provide quality education. Most of the schools are established due to the vision and philanthropy of wealthy Rajus. Notable schools in town are-

Ananda Vidhyalaya.

- S.S.Govt. Higher Secondary School
- P. A. Chinnaiah Raja Memorial School
- Chinmaya Vidyalaya
- P.A.C Ramasamy Raja Matriculation Higher Secondary School
- A.K.D. Dharmaraja School
- N.A. Annappa Raja Higher Secondary school
- Nadar Hr. Secondary School
- N.A. Ramachandra Raja Gurukulam

AKD Dharma Raja Women`s college. In recent years, there has been some progress in women education beyond high school and many have become accomplished doctors, engineers and professionals. Higher education which was once the preserve of wealthy people of this town has become possible to its ordinary people with the beginning of a separate women`s college in the town.

A Gurukulam (old style institute teaching Sanskrit and Vedic literature) has also been set up recently.

- PACR Polytechnic College
- N.A.Manjammal Polytechnic College
- Rajapalayam Raju`s College
- AKD Dharma Raja Women`s college